Ronaldo has since gone on to enjoy a fine stint with Juve, notching 71 goals and 19 assists in 94 outings across all competitions.
A win for Juve will move them to within a point of league leaders Milan, while Lazio will move into the top three if they take all three points.
Caicedo had netted a stoppage-time victor in Lazio's last league match and also netted late at Zenit St. Petersburg on Wednesday to salvage a 1-1 draw in the Champions League.
The Ecuadorean, who grabbed a 98th-minute victor at Torino last weekend and notched a late equaliser in Wednesday's 1-1 draw at Zenit St Petersburg, levelled in the 94th minute to end Juve's resistance after Lazio had dominated the second half.
'We had a good match, there were no signs of danger, said Juve coach Andrea Pirlo.
Lazio was missing a number of players, including European Golden Shoe victor Ciro Immobile, after conflicting results for tests for COVID-19.
Simone Inzaghi's Lazio, embroiled in coronavirus chaos, are ninth, five points off the leaders.
The Roman club are being investigated by the Italian football federation for possible Covid violations.
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But they were included in last weekend's game against Torino, in which Immobile also scored, following negative tests carried out in a lab used by the club.
'The other clubs will perhaps have more difficulty to overcome the crisis.
Leonardo Bonucci, making his 400th start for Juventus, proved decisive early blocking Vedat Muriqi.
Gian Piero Gasperini's side are sixth, just ahead of Inter who have won only three of their seven league games this season.
The 35-year-old had two further chances for a second, rattling the post before Pepe Reina tipped a free-kick over the bar.
Ronaldo went even closer but curled an effort off the top of the right post.
And Caicedo, who had come off the bench nine minutes after the break, once again had the final word. Joaquin Correa fed Caicedo, who swivelled to fire into the bottom right corner.
Inter and Atalanta settled for a point, days after Champions League defeats to Real Madrid and Liverpool respectively. 'Ronaldo is a crucial player, said Pirlo.