What is Oxford university’s ChAdOx1 Covid-19 vaccine?

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The vaccine has been developed by a team at The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford and Phase-I trials had begun in England to test safety and efficacy in late April.

The Oxford shot is one of the front runners in the vaccine race and is already undergoing a combined Phase II/III trials in the UK, Brazil and South Africa.

Researchers hope their vaccine will enable the human body to identify and develop an immune response to the spike protein. This was done so that the vaccine resembles the coronavirus and the immune system can learn how to attack it. The vaccine appeared to be safely tolerated in healthy people; it also seemed to create a robust immune response in volunteers, though it's still too soon to know whether that response will result in protective immunity.

Many experts have said that finding a safe and effective vaccine for the coronavirus is essential to ending the pandemic.

Admitting that "nobody can put final dates" as "things might go wrong", Mr Carpenter said "the reality is that by working with a big pharma company, that vaccine could be fairly widely avalailable around September and that is the sort of target they are working on".

The trial included 1,077 people age 18 to 55 with no history of COVID-19 and took place in five United Kingdom hospitals from late April to late May.

The results were published yesterday in The Lancet medical journal.

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"There's increasing evidence that having a T-cell response as well as antibodies could be very important in controlling COVID-19", Hill said, adding that the vaccine produced a similar amount of antibodies as those who have recovered from the coronavirus.

The vaccine has been produced by British-Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical company AstraZeneca.

Education Secretary Gavin Williamson, told the BBC on Monday morning that vaccine development was "an incredibly long process and we are doing it at breakneck speed" but that we should expect a COVID-19 vaccine "after winter".

All in all, the study found there were no serious adverse effects reported in people who received the vaccine.

However, it is still uncertain which of the experimental vaccines may work.

More than 150 possible vaccines are being developed and tested around the world to try to stop the pandemic. RNA vaccines are created to work by instructing cells to make proteins that mimic the surface of the coronavirus, which the body then sees as a foreign invader and learns to target with an immune response.

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