There has been growing pressure on China to join the agreement, especially following revelations in recent years of a subterranean "nuclear great wall", consisting of tunnels able to hide as many as 3,600 nuclear missiles.
Experts and analysts warned that the world will enter a unsafe situation as US President Donald Trump said that the United States is ready to build up its nuclear arsenal after announcing it is abandoning a Cold War-era nuclear treaty, triggering a warning of retaliatory measures from Moscow.
It doesn't appear that any North Atlantic Treaty Organisation member is keen to allow the United States to plant its intermediate-range missiles on the continent, however.
He said, based on U.S. intelligence and Russia's reluctance to discuss the missile system with NATO, "the most plausible explanation is that Russian Federation is in violation of the treaty". Trump has threatened that the United States will withdraw from the treaty, citing alleged Russian violations of the pact.
Without the treaty, some European countries fear that Washington might deploy intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Europe again and that Russian Federation might move to deploy such missiles in its exclave of Kaliningrad which would once again turn Europe into a potential nuclear battlefield.
He warned that European countries that have allowed the deployment of U.S. missiles on their land must understand that there is a possible threat of an answer and that Russian missiles will be targeted at them.
Japan's chief cabinet secretary, Yoshihide Suga, said Monday at a news conference in Tokyo that the United States' withdrawal from the treaty would be "undesirable", adding, "We hope that it will be averted".
In July, the White House issued this statement from Bolton: "The president believes that the next bilateral meeting with President Putin should take place after the Russian Federation witch hunt is over, so we've agreed that it will be after the first of the year". He said he did not understand why Europe should be put "in such grave danger".
Italy's Conte said his country was also concerned about a possible collapse of the INF agreement, adding he would speak to Trump on the subject.
He said there was no evidence that the meddling materially affected the outcome of the 2016 presidential election, but that it did create mistrust towards Russian Federation and provide a strong lesson to the Kremlin: "Don't mess with American elections".
Why does the treaty matter for Europe? But they don't expect Trump to actually add more nukes in Europe as a response.
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Richard Weitz, Ph.D., Hudson Institute senior fellow and director for the Center for Political-Military Analysis, feels by leaving this treaty it opens other lines of communication for both Russian Federation and the United States. It limits the number of nuclear warheads and their launchers, restricting the US and Russian nuclear arsenals to no more than 1,550 deployed warheads for each country.
Bolton said the United States side will look into making the "precise arrangements" for the meeting to happen.
The INF treaty, negotiated by then-President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and ratified by the U.S. Senate, eliminated the medium-range missile arsenals of the world's two biggest nuclear powers and reduced their ability to launch a nuclear strike at short notice.
"The reality is, the treaty was outmoded, being violated and being ignored by other countries", Bolton said. The nuclear weapons arsenals that China, India, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States maintain have always loomed large, whether one country gave up one type of delivery system or not. And it includes China.
On Oct. 22, Chinese foreign affairs spokeswoman Hua Chunying said at a regular press conference that "it is completely wrong to bring up China when talking about withdrawal from the treaty".
"We are ready to work with our American partners without any hysterics", he said.
President Donald Trump on Monday restated his threat to pull out of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty because of alleged Russian violations.
A failure to renew New START, which expires in 2021, "would be a bad outcome, but one that doesn't necessarily have to come to pass", Levine said. The situation will be, I think, extremely unsafe.
But Downman, the nuclear policy analyst for BASIC, said this is too unsafe of an outcome not to consider.
Nuclear policy is no place to practice brinkmanship, Downman said.