Meng Hongwei's family have reportedly not seen or heard from him since he left the headquarters of the worldwide policing organization in the French city of Lyon last week for a trip back to China.
It is not yet clear why Meng is being investigated or exactly where he is being held.
The investigation was opened after Mr Meng's wife went to police to report her husband missing.
The leader's wife reported his disappearance to French authorities on September 29.
A person familiar with the investigation into the disappearance said the initial working assumption of Western investigators was that Meng had antagonized Chinese authorities in some way and had been detained as a result.
His Interpol appointment raised concerns among rights groups that Mr Meng would use his post to pursue Chinese President Xi Jinping's opponents.
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Meng is listed on the website of China's Ministry of Public Security as a vice-minister, but lost his seat on its key Communist Party Committee in April, the South China Morning Post reported.
According to his own page on the site, Meng's last official engagement was on August 23, when he met Lai Chung Han, a second permanent secretary of Singapore.
He was named president of Interpol in 2016 and his term is due to run until 2020. Interpol and Chinese authorities have remained silent so far.
Interpol has 192 member nations, in an organization that allows police agencies to collaborate and share resources.
It does not have agents of its own with powers of arrest.