It's the latest surprise in a tournament full of upsets, which has included Spain's shocking loss to Russian Federation in the knockout rounds and, even more surprisingly, Germany crashing out of the group stage.
Manager Roberto Martinez seemed to spend most of his time before the game trying to convince his players that they could play with the record five-time world champions.
Of the remaining teams, France, another popular pick to win it all at the outset, is likely the new favorite. The similarity in their games no doubt plays a part in that; both like to express themselves to feel fulfilled and will in all likelihood be trying to avoid each other in Kazan so they can do just that. Or maybe this is year that England finally, finally, wins another major worldwide tournament. "We know how much quality Belgium have got", he said.
Brazil had been undefeated in their last 15 games under Tite‚ a streak in which a resurgent Selecao had conceded only three goals.
Brazil dominated possession and carved out chance after chance, but could not score until substitute Renato Augusto headed home Philippe Coutinho's cross 14 minutes from regulation time. The Red Devils will now face France in the semi-finals on July 10, Tuesday.
The other semi-final in Moscow on Wednesday will be contested between the winners of Saturday's quarter-finals featuring Sweden and England and Russian Federation and Croatia.
Although Brazil may have been the better side in full 90 minutes, Belgium pounded on the opportunity whenever it presented itself with zero error.
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Belgium have sent football World Cup heavyweights Brazil home with stunning 2-1 win in Kazan.
Lukaku looked invincible as he powered through Brazil's midfield before finding De Bruyne in space on the right.
Criticised for his playacting, Neymar went down lightly under minimal contact from Marouane Fellaini at the start of the second half when Brazil trailed 2-0.
But Belgium, now unbeaten in 24 matches, sensationally doubled their lead by breaking from a Brazil corner in the 31st minute. He didn't play the next match, of course - the 7-1 thrashing by Germany in the semi-final in Belo Horizonte.
Neymar, who was criticized ahead of the game for having spent almost 14 minutes on the floor cumulatively in Brazil's first four games, flung himself down but was told to get back up.
In the 56th minute, Gabriel Jesus nutmegged Belgian defender Jan Vertonghen inside the penalty area, then sidestepped him and touched the ball around Vincent Kompany just before Kompany slid into him.
Brazil nearly equalised immediately, Neymar dribbling down the left and finding Gabriel, only for his effort to go amiss.